Ladder diagrams aim to show how the balls move about between the two hands. They are usually shown vertically, with time running from top to bottom. The two vertical lines at each side represent the two hands, and the regular horizontal lines just show equal amounts of time. The other lines show the path of the balls. Filled and open circles (which are sometimes omitted) denote catches and throws respectively. Some examples of ladder diagrams for three-ball juggling patterns are shown below.
Extensions to the basic notation allow the hands to move from their normal positions at each side. In this case ‘L’ and ‘R’ are used to show which hand is where. Also, the siteswap number for each throw is sometimes written to the side to make the diagrams easier to interpret.